Vorarlberg is one of the nine states of Austria. Vorarlberg borders Germany to the north, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west and south, and the Tyrol to the east. The capital of Vorarlberg is Bregenz. It is 2,601 km2 and has more than 370,000 inhabitants, making it the second smallest state in both size and population.
Vorarlberg was occupied in ancient times by the Celtic Brigantes. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire, and after c. 460 was settled by the barbarian Alemanni during the Great Migrations. The Franks conquered the Alemanni in 496. The area passed to the Eastern Franks in 843, who divided it into smaller counties and lordships, most notably Montfort, Hohenems, and Tübingen. The Montforts later acquired most of the Vorarlberg through inheritance (from the Udalrichings and Tübingen) and purchase. By 1200, the Montforts were in control of Bregenz, Bludenz, Feldkirch, and Tosters, which were partitioned between various lines.
The Habsburgs began to acquire territories in the Vorarlberg in the 14th Century. They acquired Neuburg in 1363, Feldkirch in 1379, Bludenz in 1394, Bregenz in 1451, Sonnenburg in 1473, Hohenems in 1765, Lustenau in 1776, and St. Gerold and Blumenegg in 1804. The Austrians administered the territories as part of Further Austria, which also included their territories in Swabia and Alsace. In 1805 the Vorarlberg was ceded to Bavaria. There were pro-Austrian rebellions in 1809, both of which were crushed by French and Württembergish troops. The Vorarlberg was restored to Austria in the Congress of Vienna in 1814, and it was made part of the Tyrol.
In 1861 Vorarlberg became a separate Crownland of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, although it continued to be administered from the Tyrol. After the defeat of Austria-Hungary in 1918, a referendum was held in which more than 80% of the people voted for union with Switzerland. But the Swiss were unwilling to upset the balance of power by accepting a Catholic German-speaking canton, so by the Treaty of St. Germain Vorarlberg became a state in the new Republic of Austria. At the end of World War II and with the French advancing, the Nazi armed forces began massacres in the Vorarlberg. Vorarlberg was struck by severe flooding in 1995 and 2005.
|States of Austria|
|Burgenland | Carinthia | Lower Austria | Salzburg | Styria | Tyrol | Upper Austria | Vienna | Vorarlberg|
|Bohemia | Bukovina | Carinthia | Carniola | Dalmatia | Galicia and Lodomeria | Littoral|
Lower Austria | Moravia | Salzburg | Silesia | Styria | Tyrol | Upper Austria | Vorarlberg
|Croatia-Slavonia | Hungary | Rijeka|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina|