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The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions.

Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a more practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here.

Paleolithic eraEdit

See also: Paleolithic

Note: BP means "Before Present".

10th millennium BCEEdit

9th millennium BCEEdit

8th millennium BCEEdit

7th millennium BCEEdit

6th millennium BCEEdit

5th millennium BCEEdit

4th millennium BCEEdit

3rd millennium BCEEdit

2nd millennium BCEEdit

1st millennium BCEEdit

7th century BCEEdit

6th century BCEEdit

5th century BCEEdit

4th century BCEEdit

3rd century BCEEdit

2nd century BCEEdit

1st century BCEEdit

1st millennium CEEdit

1st century CEEdit

2nd centuryEdit

3rd centuryEdit

4th centuryEdit

5th centuryEdit

6th centuryEdit

7th centuryEdit

8th centuryEdit

9th centuryEdit

10th centuryEdit

2nd millenniumEdit

11th centuryEdit

12th centuryEdit

13th centuryEdit

14th centuryEdit

15th centuryEdit

16th centuryEdit

17th centuryEdit

18th centuryEdit

19th centuryEdit

1800sEdit

1810sEdit

1820sEdit

1830sEdit

1840sEdit

1850sEdit

1860sEdit

1870sEdit

1880sEdit

1890sEdit

20th centuryEdit

1900sEdit

1910sEdit

1920sEdit

1930sEdit

1940sEdit

1950sEdit

1960sEdit

1970sEdit

1980sEdit

1990sEdit

3rd millenniumEdit

21st centuryEdit

2000sEdit

2010sEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Harvard Gazette, Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species
  2. Harvard Gazette, Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species
  3. Hadfield, Peter, Gimme Shelter
  4. Earliest evidence of art found
  5. Evolving in their graves: early burials hold clues to human origins
  6. Scott Elias (12 September 2012). Origins of Human Innovation and Creativity. Elsevier. pp. 28. ISBN 978-0-444-53821-5. 
  7. Wadley L, Sievers C, Bamford M, Goldberg P, Berna F, Miller C. (2011). Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patterns at Sibudu, South Africa. Science 9 December 2011: Vol. 334 no. 6061 pp. 1388-1391
  8. 8.0 8.1 Backwell L, d'Errico F, Wadley L.(2008). Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35:1566-1580.Error: Bad DOI specified!
  9. Jennifer Viegas (31 March 2008). "Early Weapon Evidence Reveals Bloody Past". Discovery News. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/03/31/earliest-weapon-human.html. 
  10. Pegg, Jr., Ed, Lebombo Bone
  11. "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man" (2009). Science 325 (5946). doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126. 
  12. "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers" (2009). Science 325 (5946). doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. 
  13. Small, Meredith F. (April 2002). "String theory: the tradition of spinning raw fibers dates back 28,000 years. (At The Museum)". Natural History 111.3. 
  14. Keddie, Grant, The Atlatl Weapon[dead link]
  15. "Chinese pottery may be earliest discovered." Associated Press. 2009-06-01
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 16.15 16.16 16.17 16.18 16.19 16.20 Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia Britannica
  17. Stone age man used dentist drill. BBC News.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Piotr Bienkowski; Alan Millard (15 April 2010). Dictionary of the Ancient Near East. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-8122-2115-2. 
  19. Loewe (1968), 170–171.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Deng, Gang. (1997). Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development, c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29212-4, p. 22.
  21. Miriam T. Stark (15 April 2008). Archaeology of Asia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4051-5303-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=z4_bT2SJ-HUC&pg=PA130. Retrieved on 5 October 2012. 
  22. Carter, Robert "Boat remains and maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the sixth and fifth millennia BC"Antiquity Volume 80 No.307 March 2006 [1]
  23. Kulke, Hermann & Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Routledge. 22. ISBN 0415329205.
  24. "Dashing Finns were first to get their skates on 5,000 years ago". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article3090363.ece. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  25. John Coleman Darnell (2006). "The Wadi of the Horus Qa-a: A Tableau of Royal Ritual Power in the Theban Western Desert". Yale. http://www.yale.edu/egyptology/ae_alamat_wadi_horus.htm. Retrieved on 2010-08-24. 
  26. The sea-craft of prehistory, p76, by Paul Johnstone, Routledge, 1980
  27. Rodda & Ubertini (2004), The Basis of Civilization--water Science?, p. 161, International Association of Hydrological Science, ISBN 1901502570
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 Teresi, Dick; et al. (2002), Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya, pp. 351-2, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83718-8
  29. Ghosh (1990), page 83
  30. Davreu (1978), pages 121-129
  31. Pruthi (2004), pages 225-270
  32. Rodda, J. C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization - Water Science? pg 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004).
  33. Livingston & Beach, 20
  34. Kryss Katsiavriades and Talaat Qureshi, Inventions - 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE.
  35. Lal, R. (August 2001), "Thematic evolution of ISTRO: transition in scientific issues and research focus from 1955 to 2000", Soil and Tillage Research 61 (1-2): 3-12 [3] 
  36. Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, page 14
  37. 37.0 37.1 Dales (1974)
  38. Rao, S. R. (1985), Lothal, pp. 27–8, Archaeological Survey of India
  39. Whitelaw, page 14
  40. Sherman, David M. (2002). Tending Animals in the Global Village. Blackwell Publishing. 46. ISBN 0683180517.
  41. "Games and Amusement: Dice". Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology edited by A. Ghosh (1990), 1: 178-179, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9004092641
  42. Bhardwaj, H.C. & Jain, K.K., "Indian Dyes and Industry During 18th-19th Century", Indian Journal of History of Science, 17 (11): 70-81, New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy.
  43. Keay, John (2001), India: A History, 13-14, Grove Press, ISBN 0802137970.
  44. Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro
  45. Thrusfield, page 2
  46. Alter, page 88
  47. Craddock, P. T. et al. (1983), "Zinc production in medieval India", World Archaeology 15 (2), Industrial Archaeology, p. 13
  48. 48.0 48.1 History of Ondol
  49. Koppel (2007), page 217
  50. A World of Glass
  51. Needham (1986), volume 6 part 5 105-106
  52. 52.0 52.1 Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, p. 23, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  53. Chamberlin (2007), page 80
  54. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 516.
  55. 55.0 55.1 Pigott, Vincent C. (1999). The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. ISBN 0-924171-34-0, p. 191.
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 Surgical Instruments from Ancient Rome
  57. Roman period surgery set on show, BBC
  58. 58.0 58.1 Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 521.
  59. Kriger, Colleen E. & Connah, Graham (2006), Cloth in West African History, p. 120, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 0759104220
  60. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "jute"
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 [2]
  62. Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China 4(2) (1965), p. 352.
  63. Finger (2001), page 66
  64. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 319–323.
  65. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "Linguistics"
  66. 66.0 66.1 Wagner (2001), 7, 36–37, 64–68.
  67. Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 30.
  68. Gernet (1996), 69.
  69. Wagner (1993), 335.
  70. Pigott (1999), 177.
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 Joseph Needham (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2, p. 361. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  72. Juleff 1996
  73. Srinivasan & Ranganathan
  74. Moore, Frank Gardner (1950): "Three Canal Projects, Roman and Byzantine", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 97–111 (99–101)
  75. Froriep, Siegfried (1986): "Ein Wasserweg in Bithynien. Bemühungen der Römer, Byzantiner und Osmanen", Antike Welt, 2nd Special Edition, pp. 39–50 (46)
  76. Schörner, Hadwiga (2000): "Künstliche Schiffahrtskanäle in der Antike. Der sogenannte antike Suez-Kanal", Skyllis, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 28–43 (33–35, 39)
  77. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/02/06/science/ancient-smelter-used-wind-to-make-high-grade-steel.html John Noble Wilford, "Ancient Smelter Used Wind To Make High-Grade Steel", New York Times, 6 February 1996.
  78. Pigott (1999), 183–184.
  79. MSN Encarta (2007), Diamond
  80. 80.0 80.1 Lewis, Michael (2000), "Theoretical Hydraulics, Automata, and Water Clocks", in Wikander, Örjan, Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, 2, Leiden, pp. 343–369 (356f.), ISBN 90-04-11123-9 
  81. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "cashmere"
  82. 82.0 82.1 Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "Pagoda"
  83. B. H. M. W. Bohingamuwa (2000): "The water regulation technology of ancient Sri Lankan reservoirs: The Bisokotuwa sluice", p164.
  84. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 263–267.
  85. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 70–71.
  86. 86.0 86.1 Ronald Watkins. Unknown Seas, p. 15.
  87. Ancient Indian use of Kamal
  88. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 519.
  89. John M. Hobson (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, p. 141, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.
  90. Hoepfner, Wolfram (1970), "Ein Kombinationsschloss aus dem Kerameikos", Archäologischer Anzeiger 85 (2): 210–213 
  91. Livingston, Morna & Beach, Milo (2002), Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India, p. 19, Princeton Architectural Press, ISBN 1568983247
  92. 92.00 92.01 92.02 92.03 92.04 92.05 92.06 92.07 92.08 92.09 92.10 92.11 92.12 92.13 Georges C. Anawati, "Arabic alchemy", p. 868, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 853-902)
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 Robert Briffault (1938), The Making of Humanity, p. 195
  94. 94.0 94.1 George Rafael, A is for Arabs, Salon.com, January 8, 2002.
  95. Deborah Rowe, How Islam has kept us out of the 'Dark Ages', Science and Society, Channel 4, May 2004.
  96. Gaudiosi, Monica M. (April 1988), "The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College", University of Pennsylvania Law Review 136 (4): 1231-1261 
  97. Hudson, A. (2003), Equity and Trusts (3rd ed.), London: Cavendish Publishing, ISBN 1-85941-729-9 
  98. C. Wayne Smith, Joe Tom Cothren (1999), Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, p. viii, John Wiley and Sons. Technology & Industrial Arts, ISBN 0471180459
  99. 99.0 99.1 99.2 99.3 99.4 Ahmad Y Hassan, Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources.
  100. Distillation, Hutchinson Encyclopedia, 2007
  101. 101.0 101.1 101.2 101.3 Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (2007), "On wine, chirality and crystallography", Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography 64: 246–258 [247], doi:10.1107/S0108767307054293 
  102. 102.00 102.01 102.02 102.03 102.04 102.05 102.06 102.07 102.08 102.09 102.10 Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries". Ahmad Y Hassan. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2072.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-26. 
  103. Khairallah, Amin A. Outline of Arabic Contributions to Medicine, chapter 10. Beirut, 1946.
  104. 104.0 104.1 104.2 Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 Mar 2006.
  105. Olga Pikovskaya, Repaying the West's Debt to Islam, BusinessWeek, March 29, 2005.
  106. 106.0 106.1 106.2 106.3 106.4 106.5 106.6 Hassan, Ahmad Y. "The Colouring of Gemstones, The Purifying and Making of Pearls And Other Useful Recipes". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2092.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 
  107. Ahmad Y Hassan, Lustre Glass and Lazaward And Zaffer Cobalt Oxide In Islamic And Western Lustre Glass And Ceramics, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  108. Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture XII. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004103147. 
  109. F. L. Lewis (1992), Applied Optimal Control and Estimation, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
  110. 110.0 110.1 110.2 110.3 Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 65. BRILL, ISBN 9004146490.
  111. Richard W. Bulliet (1987), "Medieval Arabic Tarsh: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of Printing", Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (3), p. 427-438.
  112. Elly Dekker (1995), "An unrecorded medieval astrolabe quadrant from c. 1300", Annals of Science 52 (1), p. 1-47 [6].
  113. Robert Hannah (1997). "The Mapping of the Heavens by Peter Whitfield", Imago Mundi 49, pp. 161-162.
  114. 114.0 114.1 114.2 King, David A., "Astronomy and Islamic society", pp. 163–8 , in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, pp. 128-184, ISBN 0415124107 
  115. 115.0 115.1 115.2 Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 766-9, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751-795, ISBN 0415124107 
  116. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 781, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751-95, ISBN 0415124107 
  117. 117.0 117.1 Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine:
    "The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc..."
  118. 118.0 118.1 118.2 The World's First Soft Drink. 1001 Inventions, 2006.
  119. Juliette Rossant (2005), The World's First Soft Drink, Saudi Aramco World, September/October 2005, pp. 36-9
  120. 120.0 120.1 120.2 Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 759, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, pp. 751-795, ISBN 0415124107 
  121. 121.0 121.1 Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 62. BRILL, ISBN 9004146490.
  122. 122.0 122.1 Peter Barrett (2004), Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding, p. 18, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 056708969X.
  123. Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 988–991  in Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 3, Routledge, ISBN 0415124107 
  124. L. Gari (2002), "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century", Environment and History 8 (4), pp. 475-488.
  125. A. Al Dayela and N. al-Zuhair (2006), "Single drug therapy in the treatment of male sexual/erectile dysfunction in Islamic medicine", Urology 68 (1): 253-4
  126. Regis Morelon, "General Survey of Arabic Astronomy", pp. 9-10, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, pp. 1-19, ISBN 0415124107 
  127. The invention of cosmetics. 1001 Inventions.
  128. The Valuable Contribution of al-Razi (Rhazes) to the History of Pharmacy, FSTC
  129. 129.00 129.01 129.02 129.03 129.04 129.05 129.06 129.07 129.08 129.09 129.10 129.11 Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.
  130. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 3, 649–650.
  131. Paper - one of the most important inventions of the last two millennia
  132. Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, p. 57, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  133. R. Balasubramaniam (2000), On the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar, Corrosion Science 42: 2103-29
  134. Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, pp. 56-7, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  135. Encyclopedia Britannica (2002), "Chess: Ancient precursors and related games"
  136. 136.0 136.1 MSN Encarta (2008). Pachisi.
  137. Schafer (1963), pages 160-161
  138. Bedini (1994), pages 69-80
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  140. 140.0 140.1 S. Hadzovic (1997). "Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development", Medicinski Arhiv 51 (1-2), p. 47-50.
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  142. Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 2002 (2): 2-9 [7-8]
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  144. Dick, Michael S. (1998). The Ancient Ayurvedic Writings. Retrieved May 19, 2005.
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  146. David A. King (2002). "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy 33, p. 237-255 [238-239].
  147. Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Manuela Marin (1994), The Legacy of Muslim Spain, p. 117, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004095993
  148. 148.0 148.1 148.2 Lebling Jr., Robert W. (July-August 2003), "Flight of the Blackbird", Saudi Aramco World: 24–33, http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200407/flight.of.the.blackbird-.compilation..htm, retrieved on 28 June 2008 
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  150. 150.0 150.1 150.2 150.3 150.4 150.5 150.6 Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  151. 151.0 151.1 Teun Koetsier (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators", Mechanism and Machine theory 36, p. 590-591.
  152. 152.00 152.01 152.02 152.03 152.04 152.05 152.06 152.07 152.08 152.09 152.10 152.11 152.12 152.13 152.14 152.15 152.16 Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, p. 64-69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
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  154. Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%207.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 
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  158. Ismail b. Ali Ebu'l Feda history, Weltgeschichte, hrsg. von Fleischer and Reiske 1789-94, 1831.
  159. Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–32, doi:10.1177/0011392106058837 
  160. The Guinness Book Of Records, 1998, p. 242, ISBN 0-5535-7895-2
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  162. Zayn Bilkadi (University of California, Berkeley), "The Oil Weapons", Saudi Aramco World, January-February 1995, p. 20-27.
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  165. Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture XII. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004103147. 
  166. David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", pp. 168-169
  167. King, David A. (2005), In Synchrony with the Heavens, Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization: Instruments of Mass Calculation, Brill Publishers, ISBN 900414188X 
  168. King, David A. (December 2003), "14th-Century England or 9th-Century Baghdad? New Insights on the Elusive Astronomical Instrument Called Navicula de Venetiis", Centaurus 45 (1-4): 204-226 
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  170. Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–132 [123–4], doi:10.1177/0011392106058837 
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  173. ""Origins of the Fountain Pen "". Muslimheritage.com. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=365. Retrieved on September 18, 2007. 
  174. Lindsay, James E. (2005), Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 131, ISBN 0313322708 
  175. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr Al-Khujandi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
  176. "Islam, Knowledge, and Science". University of Southern California. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/introduction/woi_knowledge.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  177. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 783, in Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, pp. 751-95, ISBN 0415124107 
  178. David A. King, "Reflections on some new studies on applied science in Islamic societies (8th-19th centuries)", Islam & Science, June 2004
  179. David J Roxburgh (2000), Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World, p. 21, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004116699.
  180. Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p. 75, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0415966914.
  181. David A. King (1999), World-maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science, p. 17, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004113673.
  182. Piero Ariotti (Winter, 1968). "Galileo on the Isochrony of the Pendulum", Isis 59 (4), p. 414.
  183. 183.0 183.1 183.2 183.3 Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 2 (2002): 2-9 [7].
  184. 184.0 184.1 184.2 184.3 Finger, Stanley (1994), Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function, Oxford University Press, p. 70, ISBN 0195146948 
  185. Ancient surgery
  186. Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshold (sic) Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
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See alsoEdit

External linksEdit