Rudolph III of Austria (1281 - 1307) was the King of Bohemia from 1306 until 1307, and the co-Duke of Austria from 1298 until 1307.

Rudolph was the eldest son and third child of King Albert I of Habsburg. In 1298 his father made him the co-Duke of Austria. Rudolph married Elisabeth Richeza of Poland, the widow of King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. In 1306 after the death of King Wenceslaus III Rudolph and Henry II of Tyrol and Carinthia both claimed the inheritance of the kingdom.

Albert occupied Prague in 1306 to ensure Rudolph was made the king, however the Czech nobility continued to resist and supported Henry. The following year he besieged the rebel castle of Horažďovice but caught dysentery and died there on 3/4 July 1307. Rudolph's death considerably weakened Albert's power in Eastern Europe, and so could not resist Henry being crowned the King after he bestowed a charter of privileges.

Preceded by:

Rudolph III of Austria

Succeeded by:

Wenceslaus III King of Bohemia
1306 - 1307
Henry of Tyrol and Carinthia
Albert I Duke of Austria
1298 - 1307
with Albert I
1298 - 1307
Albert I

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