This article is about the Habsburg Duke of Austria, Leopold I. For the Babenberg Margrave of Austria, see: Leopold I, Margrave of Austria. For the Habsburg Archduke of Austria, see Leopold I, Archduke of Austria.

Leopold I of Austria (1290 - 1326) was the co-Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 until 1326.

Leopold was the third son of King Albert I of the House of Habsburg. After his father was murdered by his cousin John Parricida, Leopold was made the co-ruler of the Habsburg domains of Austria and Styria with his brother Frederick I.

His brother quarrelled often with his cousin, Duke Louis of Upper Bavaria over the rights of tutelage of the children of the Dukes of Lower Bavaria. When King Henry VII of Luxembourg died, Leopold struggled to have Frederick crowned King, with Louis being elected by a vote 4-3. Leopold was decisively defeated by the Swiss in 1315 at the Battle of Morgarten.

Frederick was captured by Louis after the disastrous Battle of Mühldorf in 1322. Leopold continued his brothers struggle, and after the Pope placed Louis under the ban in 1325, he was finally released. Leopold refused to placate and recognise Louis as required by the treaty of release, so Frederick voluntarily returned to captivity. His return impressed Louis so much that they reestablished their friendship.

Leopold was married to Catherine of Savoy. He died on 28 February 1326 in Strasbourg.

Preceded by:

Leopold I of Austria

Succeeded by:

Albert I Duke of Austria
1308 - 1326
with Frederick I
1308 - 1326
Frederick I

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