Joseph Charles was born in Sulzbach in 1694. The Elector Palatine Charles III Philip of the Palatinate-Neuburg line failed to produce a legitimate male heir, and his brothers also. By 1716 it was evident that the Palatinate-Neuburg line would become extinct and that the Sulzbach line would succeed them. Joseph Charles, the eldest son of the Count Palatine of Sulzbach, was the clear heir. In 1717 Joseph Charles married Elizabeth Augusta, the daughter of Charles III Philip, a move which united the two lines and the sons of the union would become the indisputable heir of the Palatinate, preventing another succession war.
However the plans went awry. All the sons fathered by Joseph Charles and Elizabeth Augusta died in infancy, and only three daughters survived. In 1728 Elizabeth Augusta died in childbirth, and Joseph Charles died the following year in Oggersheim. Therefore the inheritance of Palatinate-Sulzbach and the eventual inheritance passed to Joseph Charles' brother John Christian Joseph and his family.
- Charles Philip Augustus (17 March 1718 - 31 March 1724)
- Innocenza Maria (7 May 1719)
- Elizabeth Maria Augusta (17 January 1721 - 17 August 1794)
- Maria Anne (22 June 1722 - 25 April 1790)
- Dorothea (15 June 1724 - 15 November 1794)
- Charles Philip Augustus (24 November 1725 - 30 January 1728)
- unnamed son (30 January 1728)