John Philip of Schönborn (German: Johann Philipp von Schönborn) (6 August 1605 - 12 February 1673) was the Archbishop of Mainz from 1647 until 1673, the Bishop of Würzburg from 1642 until 1673, and the Bishop of Worms from 1663 until 1673.
John Philip was born in Laubuseschbach in 1605 to George of Schönborn. John Philip was probably christened as a Protestant, but he was educated by the Jesuits in Weilburg, Mainz, Orléans and Siena. In 1621 he received a position at the cathedral of Würsburg, and in 1626 he received one in Mainz as well. In 1626 he received consecrations in Mainz. He became a member of the cathedral chapter of Würzburg in 1629. He fled to Cologne with most of the high clergy in 1631 from the advancing armies of Sweden during the Thirty Years' War.
Bishop of Würzburg and Peace NegotiationsEdit
On 8 September 1642 John Philip was appointed the Bishop of Würzburg. John Philip quickly set to work restoring conditions in the prince-bishopric. He negotiated with the Holy Roman Emperor to reduce troop movement through the diocese, purchased peace from the Swedes and forced the advancing French to withdraw. In 1645 he began negotiations to end the war, and as his own position in the empire was weak he signed a treaty with the French cardinal Jules Mazarin. In addition he wanted to force the right of vote at the Peace of Westphalia so sent delegates to Münster and Osnabrück, gaining both the attention of the Emperor and the French king. As the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus resisted any compromise on the religious stalemate, John Philip took a position of compromise which gained the mistrust of Pope Innocent X.
Due to the attention and fame he won at the on-going peace negotiations, the cathedral chapter of Mainz elected John Philip the Archbishop on 19 November 1647. The Pope formally withheld giving him the pallium due to a money dispute (bishops had to pay a fee to the Pope to be confirmed during that era), however it was withheld more for his compromising position with the Protestant princes (John Philip was not confirmed until 13 September 1649). John Philip used the offices which came with the Archbishopric of Mainz to advance the negotiations. The result of his and others long and hard labours was the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which recognised the rights of the weaker rulers of Germany, mediated between France and the Empire, and successfully resisted the efforts of Sweden to abolish several Catholic spiritual states including the Archbishopric of Mainz.
Following the Peace of WestphaliaEdit
The French continued to occupy several regions of Germany after the formal peace, including the city of Mainz and the archbishop's residence. When the policies of the Habsburgs began to waver from involvement and attention of Germany, John Philip turned his attention to the French in 1655. In 1658 he tried to prevent Leopold I being elected the Holy Roman Emperor and to crown the French "sun" king Louis XIV. Leopold was nevertheless elected, and so John Philip helped resurrect the Rhenish League. As the French began to threaten the Rhineland and peace across the empire, John Philip turned to the side of Leopold and helped unite the German church behind him. He later regained the archbishopric's territories in Hesse and Erfurt.
Also following the Thirty Years' War, John Philip began widespread reforms and reconstruction throughout the archdiocese. He implemented all the reforms of the Council of Trent, rebuilt all infreastructure, and resettled regions devastated by war and plague. He reestablished the choir of the cathedral of Mainz, and in 1656 introduced the Gregorian chants. He also printed and circulated new versions and translations of the bible. In 1660 he rebuilt orphanages and allowed priest seminars. In 1663 he was also elected the Bishop of Worms and implemented reform there. He was also one of the first princes to outlaw witch-hunting, which had killed over 2,000 people during the past century in the archbishopric.
John Philip also took a tolerant policy towards Protestants, and allowed them to continue to live the archdiocese. He brankrupted Mainz by increasing the fortifications of the city. On 15 December 1570 John Philip appointed Lothar Frederick of Metternich-Burscheid his coadjutor after he became ill with kidney disease. He died in Würzburg, his favourite city, in 1673 and was buried in the west choir of the Cathedral of Mainz.
John Philip of Schönborn
|Anselm Casimir Wambolt of Umstadt||Archbishop of Mainz|
1647 - 1673
|Lothar Frederick of Metternich-Burscheid|
|Hugh Eberard Kratz of Scharfenstein||Bishop of Worms|
1663 - 1673
|Lothar Frederick of Metternich-Burscheid|
|Francis of Hatzfeld||Bishop of Würzburg|
1642 - 1673
|John Hartmann of Rosenbach|