A civilization (UK and US) or civilisation (UK variant) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment. The Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt) are understood to be the earliest of Civilizations.

Early civilizationsEdit

Classic civilizationsEdit

Middle civilizationsEdit

Modern powersEdit