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German Mediatisation

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The German Mediatisation is the name of the process of secularisation and mediatisation which occurred in Germany during and after the Napoleonic Wars. "Secularisation" is the process of removing temporal authority from spiritual leaders, such as Bishops, Abbots, and Abbesses. "Mediatisation" is the process of annexing one states' territory but leaving the annexed states' rulers with specific rights and privileges. The secularisation of the states in Germany was complete in 1803. The mediatisation occurred from 1806 - 1815. The states mediatised before the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine (July 12, 1806), or those ruled by states which did not have a seat in the College of Princes or one of the four Benches of Counts, are not considered amongst the "Mediatised Houses".

The SecularisationEdit

In 1797 Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire, and by the Treaty of Campo Formio (1801) annexed all lands west of the Rhine River. It was the responsibility of the Holy Roman Emperor to compensate many now stateless nobles with new lands, and the only lands to give were those held by ecclesiastical states. With France's insistence, the Reichstag in 1803 officially secularised all of the ecclesiastical states and redistributed their lands amongst the nobles of Germany.

List of Secularised StatesEdit

Name Type Recipient
Arms-Teutonic-OrderAlsace and Burgundy Bailiwick -
Arms-Augsburg-DioceseAugsburg Bishopric Bavaria
Baindt Abbey Aspremont-Lynden
Arms-Bamberg-DioceseBamberg Bishopric Bavaria
Arms-Basel-DioceseBasel Bishopric -
Arms-Berchtesgaden-ProvostryBerchtesgaden Provostry Salzburg
Arms-Besançon-DioceseBesançon Archbishopric -
Arms-BrixenBrixen Bishopric Austria
Buchau Abbey Thurn and Taxis
Burtscheid Abbey -
Arms-Buxheim-AbbeyBuxheim Abbey Ostein and Goltstein
Arms-Buxheim-Abbey Buxheim: Pless - Wartenberg
Arms-Chur-DioceseChur Bishopric -
Arms-Teutonic-OrderCoblenz Bailiwick -
Arms-Cologne-DioceseCologne Archbishopric Arenberg and Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Constance-DioceseConstance (Konstanz) Bishopric Baden
Arms-Cornelimünster-AbbeyCornelimünster Abbey -
Arms-Corvey-AbbeyCorvey Bishopric Nassau-Orange
Arms-Eichstätt-DioceseEichstätt Bishopric Bavaria
Elchingen Abbey Bavaria
Arms-Ellwangen-ProvostryEllwangen Provostry Württemberg
Arms-Essen-AbbeyEssen Abbey Prussia
Arms-Freising-DioceseFreising Bishopric Bavaria
Arms-Fulda-DioceseFulda Bishopric Nassau-Orange
Gandersheim Abbey Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Arms-Gengenbach-AbbeyGengenbach Abbey Baden
Gernrode Abbey Anhalt
Gutenzell Abbey Törring-Gutenzell
Heggbach Abbey Waldbott von Bassenheim
Arms-Herford-AbbeyHerford Abbey Prussia
Arms-Hildesheim-Diocese1Hildesheim Bishopric Prussia
Arms-Irsee-AbbeyIrsee Abbey Bavaria
Kaisersheim (Kaisheim) Abbey Bavaria
Arms-Kempten-AbbeyKempten Abbey Bavaria
Arms-Liège-Diocese-18thCLiège (Lüttich) Bishopric -
Arms-Lübeck-DioceseLübeck Bishopric Oldenburg
Arms-Mainz-DioceseMainz Archbishopric Hesse-Darmstadt and Nassau-Weilburg
Marchthal Abbey Thurn and Taxis
Arms-Münster-DioceseMünster Bishopric Prussia, Arenberg, Salm-Salm, Salm-Kyrburg and Berg
Neresheim Abbey Thurn and Taxis
Niedermünster in Regensburg Abbey Prince-Primacy
Arms-Obermünster-AbbeyObermünster in Regensburg Abbey Prince-Primacy
Arms-Ochsenhausen-AbbeyOchsenhausen Abbey Metternich-Winneburg
Arms-Ochsenhausen-Abbey Ochsenhausen: Tannheim - Schaesberg
Arms-Ochsenhausen-Abbey Ochsenhausen: Winterrieden - Sinzendorf
Arms-Odenheim-AbbeyOdenheim and Bruchsal Abbey Baden
Arms-Osnabrück-DioceseOsnabrück Bishopric Hannover
Arms-Paderborn-DiocesePaderborn Bishopric Prussia
Arms-PassauPassau Bishopric Bavaria
Arms-Petershausen-AbbeyPetershausen Abbey Baden
Arms-Prüm-AbbeyPrüm Abbey Denmark
Quedlinburg Abbey Prussia
Arms-Regensburg-DioceseRegensburg Bishopric Prince-Primacy
Arms-Roggenburg-AbbeyRoggenburg Abbey Bavaria
Arms-Roth-AbbeyRoth Abbey Wartenberg
Rottenmünster Abbey Württemberg
Arms-StEmmeran-AbbeySt Emmeran in Regensburg Abbey Prince-Primacy
St George in Isny Abbey Quadt-Isny
St Ulrich and St Afra in Augsburg Abbey Bavaria
Arms-Salmannsweiler-Abbey2Salmannsweiler (Salem) Abbey Baden
Arms-Salzburg-StateSalzburg Archbishopric Salzburg
Schussenried Abbey Sternberg and Manderscheid, Nesselrode-Reichenstein and Sickingen
Söflingen Abbey Bavaria
Arms-Speyer-DioceseSpeyer Bishopric Baden
Stablo-Malmedy Abbey -
Arms-Strasbourg-DioceseStrasbourg Bishopric Baden
Thorn Abbey -
Arms-TrentTrent (Trento) Bishopric Austria
Arms-Trier-DioceseTrier Archbishopric -
Arms-Ursberg-AbbeyUrspring Abbey Württemberg
Arms-Weingarten-AbbeyWeingarten Abbey Nassau-Orange
Weissenau Abbey Sternberg and Manderscheid
Arms-Weissenburg-ProvostryWeissenburg Provostry -
Werden-Helmstädt Abbey Prussia
Arms-Wettenhausen-AbbeyWettenhausen Abbey Bavaria
Arms-Worms-DioceseWorms Bishopric Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Würzburg-Diocese2Würzburg Bishopric Bavaria
Arms-ZwiefaltenZwiefalten Abbey Württemberg

The Teutonic Order and the Knights of St. John were not "secularised". The Electors of Cologne, Mainz and Trier kept their votes despite being secularised. Those without recipients were either annexed to France or Switzerland by 1801.

Mediatised Free CitiesEdit

In 1803, the Free and Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire were also abolished and annexed to other states, with the exceptions of Arms-Bremen Bremen, Arms-Hamburg Hamburg, Arms-Lubeck Lübeck, Arms-Augsburg Augsburg, Arms-Nuremberg Nuremberg and Arms-FrankfurtMain Frankfurt. Of these, Augsburg was mediatised to Bavaria in 1805, Nuremberg in 1806, Frankfurt to the Prince-Primacy in 1806, and Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck to France in 1810. Frankfurt, Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck were later restored at the Congress of Vienna.

List of Mediatised CitiesEdit

Name Recipient
Arms-AachenAachen -
Arms-Aalen-pre1956Aalen Württemberg
Arms-BiberachRissBiberach Baden
Arms-BopfingenBopfingen Bavaria
Arms-BadBuchauBuchau Thurn and Taxis
Arms-FriedrichshafenBuchhorn (Friedrichshafen) Bavaria
Arms-CologneCologne -
Arms-DinkelsbühlDinkelsbühl Bavaria
Arms-Dortmund-pre1946Dortmund Nassau-Orange
Arms-EsslingenNeckarEsslingen Württemberg
Arms-FriedbergWetterauFriedberg in der Wetterau Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-GengenbachGengenbach Baden
Arms-GiengenBrenzGiengen an der Brenz Württemberg
Arms-GoslarGoslar Prussia
Arms-HeilbronnHeilbronn Württemberg
Arms-IsnyIsny Quadt-Isny
Arms-KaufbeurenKaufbeuren Bavaria
Arms-Kempten1500s-1818Kempten Bavaria
Arms-LeutkirchLeutkirch Bavaria
Arms-LindauBodensee-FreeCityLindau Bretzenheim
Arms-MemmingenMemmingen Bavaria
Arms-Muhlhausen-ThuringiaMühlhausen Prussia
Arms-NordhausenNordhausen Prussia
Arms-NordlingenNördlingen Bavaria
Arms-OffenburgOffenburg Baden
Arms-PfullendorfPfullendorf Baden
Arms-RavensburgRavensburg Bavaria
Arms-RegensburgRegensburg Prince-Primacy
Arms-ReutlingenReutlingen Württemberg
Arms-RothenburgTauberRothenburg ob der Tauber Bavaria
Arms-RottweilRottweil Württemberg
Arms-SchwäbischGmündSchwäbisch Gmünd Württemberg
Arms-SchwäbischHallSchwäbisch Hall Württemberg
Arms-SchweinfurtSchweinfurt Bavaria
Arms-SpeyerSpeyer -
Arms-UberlingenÜberlingen Baden
Arms-Ulm1351-1803Ulm Bavaria
Arms-WangenWangen Bavaria
Arms-WeilWeil der Stadt Württemberg
Arms-Weissenburg-NordgauWeissenburg im Nordgau Bavaria
Arms-WetzlarWetzlar Prince-Primacy
Arms-BadWimpfenWimpfen Bavaria
Arms-WindsheimWindsheim Bavaria
Arms-WormsWorms -
Arms-ZellHarmersbachZell am Harmersbach Baden

Those without recipients were annexed to France in 1801.

The MediatisationEdit

In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was abolished, and Napoleon Bonaparte had created the Confederation of the Rhine in its stead. As an incentive to join the confederation, states which joined were granted permission to mediatise neighbouring states. Further mediatisations occurred in 1807 with the creation of the Kingdom of Westphalia, when Napoleon annexed northwestern Germany to enforce the Continental Blockade in 1810, and further mediatisations took place at the Congress of Vienna in 1814/5. Those houses which were mediatised became known as the "Mediatised Houses".

Compare the list of Mediatised States with the Mediatised Houses.

List of Mediatised StatesEdit

Name Date Recipient
Arms-HolzappelAnhalt-Bernburg-Hoym 1806 Nassau-Weilburg
Arms-Arenberg-DukeArenberg (Aremberg) 1810 France
Arms-Aspremont-GermanyAspremont-Lynden 1806 Württemberg
Auersperg 1806 Austria and Baden
Arms-BentheimBentheim-Bentheim and Steinfurt 1806 Berg
Arms-BentheimBentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda 1806 Berg
Arms-BentinckBentinck 1810 France
Arms-BoyneburgBoyneburg-Bömelberg 1806 Salm-Kyrburg
Arms-Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel1700sBrunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1807 Westphalia
Arms-CastellCastell-Castell 1806 Bavaria
Arms-CastellCastell-Rüdenhausen 1806 Bavaria
Arms-ColloredoColloredo-Mansfeld 1806 Austria, Prince-Primacy and Württemberg
Arms-CroyCroÿ-Dulmen 1806 Arenberg
Arms-Dietrichstein3Dietrichstein 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Erbach-ErbachErbach-Erbach 1806 Bavaria, Hesse-Darmstadt and Württemberg
Arms-Erbach2Erbach-Furstenau 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Erbach2Erbach-Schönberg 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-EsterházyEsterházy von Galántha 1806 Bavaria
Arms-FuggerFugger-Babenhausen 1806 Austria and Bavaria
Arms-FuggerFugger-Glött 1806 Bavaria
Arms-Fugger-Kirchberg-WeissFugger-Kirchberg-Weissenhorn 1806 Württemberg
Arms-FuggerFugger-Kirchheim 1806 Bavaria
Arms-FuggerFugger-Norndorf 1806 Bavaria, and Württemberg
Arms-Fürstenberg-PrinceFürstenberg 1806 Austria, Baden, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Württemberg
Arms-Giech2Giech 1806 Austria
Grävenitz 1806 Berg
Arms-HarrachHarrach 1806 Austria
Arms-Hesse-CasselHesse-Cassel 1807 Westphalia
Arms-Hesse-HomburgHesse-Homburg 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Hohenlohe-CountHohenlohe-Bartenstein 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Hohenlohe-CountHohenlohe-Ingelfingen 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Hohenlohe-CountHohenlohe-Jagstberg 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Hohenlohe-CountHohenlohe-Kirchberg 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Hohenlohe-CountHohenlohe-Langenburg 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Hohenlohe-CountHohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst 1806 Bavaria and Württemberg
Arms-Isenburg-BirsteinIsenburg 1814 Austria, Hesse-Darmstadt and Prussia
Arms-IsenburgIsenburg-Büdingen 1806 Isenburg
Arms-Isenburg-MeerholzIsenburg-Meerholz 1806 Isenburg
Arms-IsenburgIsenburg-Wächtersbach 1806 Isenburg
Arms-Kaunitz-RietbergKaunitz-Rietberg 1807 Westphalia
Arms-Khevenhuller-MetschKhevenhüller-Metsch 1806 Austria
Arms-KonigseggKönigsegg-Aulendorf 1806 Württemberg
Kuefstein-Greillenstein 1806 Austria
Arms-Leiningen-HartenburgLeiningen (Leiningen-Hartenburg) 1806 Baden, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Leiningen-WesterburgLeiningen-Alt-Westerburg 1806 Berg and Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-LeiningenLeiningen-Billigheim 1806 Baden
Arms-LeiningenLeiningen-Neudenau 1806 Baden
Arms-Leiningen-WesterburgLeiningen-Neu-Westerburg 1806 Berg and Nassau-Weilburg
Arms-Leyen-GondorfLeyen 1814 Austria, Baden and Prussia
Lobcowicz (Lobkowitz) 1806 Bavaria
Arms-Looz-CorswaremLooz-Corswarem 1806 Berg
Arms-Löwenstein-WertheimLöwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenburg 1806 Baden, Berg, Bavaria, Hesse-Darmstadt, Prince-Primacy and Württemberg
Arms-Löwenstein-WertheimLöwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg 1806 Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt and Prince-Primacy
Arms-Metternich-WinneburgMetternich-Winneburg 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Orange-NassauNassau-Orange 1806 Baden, Berg and Württemberg
Arms-NeippergNeipperg 1806 Austria
Arms-Nesselrode-ReichensteinNesselrode-Reichenstein 1806 Nassau-Weilburg
Orsini and Rosenberg 1806 Austria
Arms-Ortenburg2Ortenburg 1806 Würzburg
Ostein 1806 Bavaria
Arms-Ottingen2Öttingen-Spielberg 1806 Bavaria and Württemberg
Arms-Ottingen2Öttingen-Wallerstein 1806 Bavaria and Württemberg
Arms-Pappenheim2Pappenheim 1806 Austria and Bavaria
Platen-Hallermund 1805 Prussia
Arms-PlettenbergPlettenberg-Lenhausen 1806 Württemberg
Arms-PlettenbergPlettenberg-Wittem 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Puckler-LimpurgPückler and Limpurg 1806 Austria and Bavaria
Arms-Quadt-WickrathQuadt-Isny 1806 Württemberg
Arms-RechbergRechberg and Rothenlöwen 1806 Austria and Württemberg
Arms-Rechteren-LimpurgRechteren-Limpurg-Speckfeld 1806 Bavaria
Arms-SalmSalm-Horstmar 1806 Berg
Arms-SalmSalm-Kyrburg 1810 France
Arms-Salm-ReifferscheidSalm-Reifferscheid-Dyck 1806 Baden and Württemberg
Arms-Salm-ReifferscheidSalm-Reifferscheid-Hainsbach 1806 Baden and Württemberg
Arms-Salm-ReifferscheidSalm-Reifferscheid-Krautheim 1806 Baden and Württemberg
Arms-SalmSalm-Rhinegrafenstein and Grehweiler 1806 Berg
Arms-SalmSalm-Salm 1810 France
Arms-Sayn-WittgensteinSayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg 1806 Berg and Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Sayn-WittgensteinSayn-Wittgenstein-Hohnstein 1806 Prussia and Württemberg
Schaesberg 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Schlitz-GörtzSchlitz genannt von Görtz 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Schönborn-WiesentheidSchönborn-Wiesentheid 1806 Bavaria
Arms-SchönburgSchönburg-Penig-Vorderglauchau-Wechselburg 1740 Austria and Saxony
Arms-SchönburgSchönburg-Rochsburg-Hinterglauchau 1740 Saxony
Arms-SchönburgSchönburg-Waldenburg 1740 Austria and Saxony
Arms-Schwarzenberg3Schwarzenberg 1806 Austria, Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg
Arms-SickingenSickingen 1806 Austria
Arms-SinzendorfSinzendorf 1806 Austria and Bavaria
Arms-Solms2Solms-Braunfels 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt, Prussia and Württemberg
Arms-Solms2Solms-Laubach 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Solms2Solms-Hohensolms-Lich 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt, Prussia and Württemberg
Arms-Solms2Solms-Rödelheim-Assenheim 1806 Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Solms2Solms-Wildenfels 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-StadionStadion-Thannhausen 1806 Bavaria
Arms-StadionStadion-Warthausen 1806 Württemberg
Starhemberg 1806 Austria
Sternberg and Manderscheid 1806 Austria and Württemberg
Arms-Stolberg4Stolberg-Rossla 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt
Arms-Stolberg4Stolberg-Stolberg 1806 Prussia
Arms-Stolberg4Stolberg-Wernigerode 1807 Hesse-Darmstadt (1806) and Westphalia (1807)
Arms-ThurnTaxisThurn and Taxis 1806 Baden, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Württemberg
Arms-Toerring2Törring-Gutenzell 1806 Württemberg
Arms-TrautmansdorfTrautmansdorf-Weinsberg 1806 Austria and Baden
Arms-Waldbott-BassenheimWaldbott von Bassenheim 1806 Bavaria, Nassau-Weilburg and Württemberg
Arms-Waldburg2Waldburg-Waldsee 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Waldburg2Waldburg-Wurzach 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Waldburg2Waldburg-Zeil 1806 Württemberg
Arms-Waldeck-PyrmontWaldeck-Limpurg 1806 Württemberg
Arms-WallmodenWallmoden-Gimborn 1806 Berg, Mecklenberg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Arms-WartenbergWartenberg 1806 Württemberg
Arms-WiedWied-Neuwied 1806 Nassau-Weilburg and Prussia
Arms-Wied-RunkelWied-Runkel 1806 Berg, Nassau-Weilburg and Prussia
Arms-Windisch-GratzWindisch-Grätz-Eglofs 1806 Austria and Württemberg
Arms-WurmbrandWurmbrand-Stuppach 1806 Austria

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