is the largest and most populous constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and is located to the north-west of mainland Europe. Its inhabitants account for more than 82 percent of the total population of the United Kingdom.
is often mistakenly considered the same as the United Kingdom, or the same as the island of Great Britain, which consists of , Scotland, and Wales. However, no longer officially exists as an administrative or political unit as do Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, which have varying degrees of self-government in domestic affairs.
became a unified state during the tenth century and takes its name from the Angles, one of a number of Germanic tribes who settled in the territory during the fifth and sixth centuries. ranks among the world's most influential centers of cultural development.
It is the place of origin of the English language and the Church of , and English law forms the basis of the legal systems of many countries. The nation was the center of the British Empire, and the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. is home to the Royal Society, which laid the foundations of modern experimental science.
Was the world's first parliamentary democracy and consequently many constitutional, governmental and legal innovations that had their origin in have been widely adopted by other nations.