Often referred to as the Indus Valley Civilization, it lasted from 2600 - 1800 BCE, it covered an area that includes present day Pakistan and much of Western India. It may have included parts for Afghanistan as well. Because records are hard to come by, and the few that we have are so poorly understood, not much is truly understood regarding the Indus Valley period of history.

They are known mostly by what they have left behind in their cities. The cities themselves show evidence that Urban Planning may have been in use. Many of the major cities have their streets setup along a grid layout as is now done in the newer cities of our times. Sewage and drainage systems were sophisticated for the times. That the cities were tied together in a common civilization has been demonstrated through common architectural standards and a common standard system of weights and measurements.

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