Duchy of Carniola
Herzogtum Krain
Vojvodina Kranjska
1364 - 1918

Raised from Margraviate 1364 (1590)
To France 1805 - 1806
To France 1809 - 1813
Abolished 1918

The Duchy of Carniola was an Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire. Traditionally, the margraviate was bordered by Carinthia and Styria to the north, Croatia and Slavonia to the east, Istria and Dalmatia to the south, and Friuli, Gorizia, Udine and Gradisca to the west. Carniola was originally a margraviate.

The Austrian Duke Rudolph the Founder declared Carniola to be a Duchy in 1364, although it was not confirmed until 1590. Carniola was a restive province of the Habsburgs which was often in rebellion and it suffered repeated Turkish raids. Frederick IV united the three regions of Central, Upper, and Lower Carniola into one distinct entity. It was occupied by France in 1797 during the Napoleonic Wars. With the reorganisation of the Holy Roman Empire in 1803, Carniola was made an Imperial Estate with a seat in the Bench of Princes, replacing the Bishopric of Basel. From 1805 until 1806 the French again occupied Carniola, and by the Treaty of Vienna in 1809 it became part of the Illyrian Provinces of France. The defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1813 saw the Austrians recapture the territory with larger borders, but the Congress of Vienna saw the borders returned to their original size in 1815. Carniola was reorganised as a crownland in 1849. After the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 Carniola was joined to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and the Duchy itself was abolished.

Austro-Hungarian Empire
Bohemia | Bukovina | Carinthia | Carniola | Dalmatia | Galicia and Lodomeria | Littoral
Lower Austria | Moravia | Salzburg | Silesia | Styria | Tyrol | Upper Austria | Vorarlberg
Croatia-Slavonia | Hungary | Rijeka
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Austrian Circle
on the Adige | Austria (bailiwick) | Breisgau | Brixen | Carinthia | Carniola | Chur | Friuli
Further Austria | Gorizia | Lower Austria | Styria | Tarasp | Trent | Tyrol | Upper Austria

Earlier Members:
Austria (archduchy) | Gradisca | Gurk | Hardegg | Lavant | Losenstein | Rogendorf
Schaunberg | Seckau | Wolkenstein-Rodenegg