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Engineering an Empire China

Engineering an Empire China

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Prehistoric China

Ancient China

Classical China

Medieval China

Modern China

China's civilization can be traced back to the Yellow River. It is one of several rivers that are essential for China's very existence. At the same time, however, it has been responsible for several deadly floods, including the only natural disasters in recorded history to have killed more than a million people.[1] Before modern dams came to China, the Yellow River was extremely prone to flooding. In the 2,540 years from 595 BCE to 1946 CE, the Yellow River has been reckoned to have flooded 1,593 times, shifting its course 26 times noticeably and nine times severely.[2][3]

Prehistoric ChinaEdit

Ancient ChinaEdit

Yellow River civilization or Huang civilization, Hwan‐huou civilization is an ancient Chinese civilization that prospered in a middle and lower basin of the Yellow River. Agriculture was started in the flood plain of the Yellow River, and before long, through flood control and the irrigation of the Yellow River, cities were developed and political power found reinforcement. One of the "four major civilizations of the ancient world", it is often included in textbooks of East Asian history, but the idea of including only the Huang civilization as one of the four biggest ancient civilizations has become outdated thanks to the discovery of other early cultures, such as the Chang Jiang and Liao civilizations. The area saw the Yangshao and Longshan cultures of the Neolithic era and developed into the bronze ware culture of the Yin and Zhou dynasties.

The Yangshao culture emerged along the Yellow River and their artifacts included their pots of red clay (also decorated with spiral patterns) and some of the burials found that showed that some of them may have believed in the connection of heaven and Earth. Another society at Longshan in Shandong province at the lower reaches of the Yellow River made even finier pots of fine black clay. These societies thrived based on the similar irrigation techniques like those of the Indus Valley Civilization and the Egyptians. In 1959, a series of very old temples and artifacts of the Erilitou culture revealed even more varieties of ancient Chinese cultures.

Classical ChinaEdit

Classical China laid the foundations for arguably the single most important civilization in the history of the planet. Any stereotypical ideas you have about the way China is from borders, language, writing, technology, empires, rulers, etc. come from this era. From the point where the region was first unified under the legalist Qin Shi Huangdi to the fall of the Han empire, what we know as China today took shape.

Medieval ChinaEdit

Modern ChinaEdit

The Qing Dynasty (1644- 1912) was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636. It ruled China from 1644 to 1912. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries, which formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state— to become the Republic of China (ROC) in 1912. The ROC relocated from mainland China in 1949 to Taiwan becoming the People's Republic of China (PRC). It currently governs Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu Islands, the Pratas island group, and some nearby islands. The PRC also rules over mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau.

ReferencesEdit

  1. White, Matthew (2012). The Great Big Book of Horrible Things. W. W. Norton. p. 47. ISBN 9780393081923. 
  2. Tregear, T. R. (1965) A Geography of China, pp. 218–219.
  3. "Flooding and communicable diseases fact sheet". World Health Organization. p. 2. http://www.who.int/hac/techguidance/ems/flood_cds/en/index.html. Retrieved on 27 July 2011.